New Publications Citing SmedGD

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Genome and transcriptome of the regeneration-competent flatworm, Macrostomum lignano

Wasik K, Gurtowski J, Zhou X, Ramos OM, Delás MJ, Battistoni G, El Demerdash O, Falciatori I, Vizoso DB, Smith AD, Ladurner P, Schärer L, McCombie WR, Hannon GJ, Schatz

Ergot Alkaloids (Re)generate New Leads as Antiparasitics

Chan JD, Agbedanu PN, Grab T, Zamanian M, Dosa PI, Day TA, Marchant JS PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Sep;9(9):e0004063 PMID: 26367744 Abstract Praziquantel (PZQ) is a key therapy for

A Novel Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposon in Miniature (TRIM) Is Massively Expressed in Echinococcus multilocularis Stem Cells

Koziol U, Radio S, Smircich P, Zarowiecki M, Fernández C, Brehm K Genome Biol Evol 2015 Aug;7(8):2136-53 PMID: 26133390 Abstract Taeniid cestodes (including the human parasites Echinococcus spp. and Taenia

JNK signalling is necessary for a Wnt- and stem cell-dependent regeneration programme

Tejada-Romero B, Carter JM, Mihaylova Y, Neumann B, Aboobaker AA Development 2015 Jul;142(14):2413-24 PMID: 26062938 Abstract Regeneration involves the integration of new and old tissues in the context of an

SmedGD 2.0: The Schmidtea mediterranea genome database

Robb SM, Gotting K, Ross E, Sánchez Alvarado A Genesis 2015 Jul; PMID: 26138588 Abstract Planarians have emerged as excellent models for the study of key biological processes such as

Export SVG and PDF Images

We have added the ability to export SVG and PDF images from our genome browsers. Just find the region of the genome you like, click on the ‘File’ drop down menu, then ‘Export as…’, then ‘…editable SVG image’ or ‘…high-res PDF’.

Planmine Transcripts Aligned

Transcriptomes from PlanMine – a mineable resource of planarian biology and biodiversity are now aligned to SmedSxl_v3.1, SmedSxl_v4.0, SmedAxl_v1.1. Look for the Planmine section in the “Selection Tracks” tab on each genome assembly browser.

Brandl, H., Moon, H., Vila-Farré, M., Liu, S.-Y., Henry, I., & Rink, J. C., PlanMine – a mineable resource of planarian biology and biodiversity., Nucleic Acids Research, gkv1148. doi:10.1093/nar/gkv1148 (2015)

Fabulous New SmedGD Banner

We are very thankful to the M.C. Escher Company for allowing us to display ‘Flatworms’ on SmedGD. www.mcescher.com

Genome and transcriptome of the regeneration-competent flatworm, Macrostomum lignano

Wasik K, Gurtowski J, Zhou X, Ramos OM, Delás MJ, Battistoni G, El Demerdash O, Falciatori I, Vizoso DB, Smith AD, Ladurner P, Schärer L, McCombie WR, Hannon GJ, Schatz M

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2015 Oct;112(40):12462-7

PMID: 26392545

Abstract

The free-living flatworm, Macrostomum lignano has an impressive regenerative capacity. Following injury, it can regenerate almost an entirely new organism because of the presence of an abundant somatic stem cell population, the neoblasts. This set of unique properties makes many flatworms attractive organisms for studying the evolution of pathways involved in tissue self-renewal, cell-fate specification, and regeneration. The use of these organisms as models, however, is hampered by the lack of a well-assembled and annotated genome sequences, fundamental to modern genetic and molecular studies. Here we report the genomic sequence of M. lignano and an accompanying characterization of its transcriptome. The genome structure of M. lignano is remarkably complex, with ∼75% of its sequence being comprised of simple repeats and transposon sequences. This has made high-quality assembly from Illumina reads alone impossible (N50 = 222 bp). We therefore generated 130× coverage by long sequencing reads from the Pacific Biosciences platform to create a substantially improved assembly with an N50 of 64 Kbp. We complemented the reference genome with an assembled and annotated transcriptome, and used both of these datasets in combination to probe gene-expression patterns during regeneration, examining pathways important to stem cell function.

Ergot Alkaloids (Re)generate New Leads as Antiparasitics

Chan JD, Agbedanu PN, Grab T, Zamanian M, Dosa PI, Day TA, Marchant JS

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Sep;9(9):e0004063

PMID: 26367744

Abstract

Praziquantel (PZQ) is a key therapy for treatment of parasitic flatworm infections of humans and livestock, but the mechanism of action of this drug is unresolved. Resolving PZQ-engaged targets and effectors is important for identifying new druggable pathways that may yield novel antiparasitic agents. Here we use functional, genetic and pharmacological approaches to reveal that serotonergic signals antagonize PZQ action in vivo. Exogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) rescued PZQ-evoked polarity and mobility defects in free-living planarian flatworms. In contrast, knockdown of a prevalently expressed planarian 5-HT receptor potentiated or phenocopied PZQ action in different functional assays. Subsequent screening of serotonergic ligands revealed that several ergot alkaloids possessed broad efficacy at modulating regenerative outcomes and the mobility of both free living and parasitic flatworms. Ergot alkaloids that phenocopied PZQ in regenerative assays to cause bipolar regeneration exhibited structural modifications consistent with serotonergic blockade. These data suggest that serotonergic activation blocks PZQ action in vivo, while serotonergic antagonists phenocopy PZQ action. Importantly these studies identify the ergot alkaloid scaffold as a promising structural framework for designing potent agents targeting parasitic bioaminergic G protein coupled receptors.

A Novel Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposon in Miniature (TRIM) Is Massively Expressed in Echinococcus multilocularis Stem Cells

Koziol U, Radio S, Smircich P, Zarowiecki M, Fernández C, Brehm K

Genome Biol Evol 2015 Aug;7(8):2136-53

PMID: 26133390

Abstract

Taeniid cestodes (including the human parasites Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium) have very few mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in their genome, despite lacking a canonical PIWI pathway. The MGEs of these parasites are virtually unexplored, and nothing is known about their expression and silencing. In this work, we report the discovery of a novel family of small nonautonomous long terminal repeat retrotransposons (also known as terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature, TRIMs) which we have named ta-TRIM (taeniid TRIM). ta-TRIMs are only the second family of TRIM elements discovered in animals, and are likely the result of convergent reductive evolution in different taxonomic groups. These elements originated at the base of the taeniid tree and have expanded during taeniid diversification, including after the divergence of closely related species such as Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus. They are massively expressed in larval stages, from a small proportion of full-length copies and from isolated terminal repeats that show transcriptional read-through into downstream regions, generating novel noncoding RNAs and transcriptional fusions to coding genes. In E. multilocularis, ta-TRIMs are specifically expressed in the germinative cells (the somatic stem cells) during asexual reproduction of metacestode larvae. This would provide a developmental mechanism for insertion of ta-TRIMs into cells that will eventually generate the adult germ line. Future studies of active and inactive ta-TRIM elements could give the first clues on MGE silencing mechanisms in cestodes.

MK4 Search Function Fixed

The MAKER search functionality has been repaired. Sorry for any inconvenience.

JNK signalling is necessary for a Wnt- and stem cell-dependent regeneration programme

Tejada-Romero B, Carter JM, Mihaylova Y, Neumann B, Aboobaker AA

Development 2015 Jul;142(14):2413-24

PMID: 26062938

Abstract

Regeneration involves the integration of new and old tissues in the context of an adult life history. It is clear that the core conserved signalling pathways that orchestrate development also play central roles in regeneration, and further study of conserved signalling pathways is required. Here we have studied the role of the conserved JNK signalling cascade during planarian regeneration. Abrogation of JNK signalling by RNAi or pharmacological inhibition blocks posterior regeneration and animals fail to express posterior markers. While the early injury-induced expression of polarity markers is unaffected, the later stem cell-dependent phase of posterior Wnt expression is not established. This defect can be rescued by overactivation of the Hh or Wnt signalling pathway to promote posterior Wnt activity. Together, our data suggest that JNK signalling is required to establish stem cell-dependent Wnt expression after posterior injury. Given that Jun is known to be required in vertebrates for the expression of Wnt and Wnt target genes, we propose that this interaction may be conserved and is an instructive part of planarian posterior regeneration.

MK4 Search Function

MK4 MAKER Annotation search function is currently under construction

SmedGD 2.0: The Schmidtea mediterranea genome database

Robb SM, Gotting K, Ross E, Sánchez Alvarado A

Genesis 2015 Jul;

PMID: 26138588

Abstract

Planarians have emerged as excellent models for the study of key biological processes such as stem cell function and regulation, axial polarity specification, regeneration, and tissue homeostasis among others. The most widely used organism for these studies is the free-living flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea. In 2007, the Schmidtea mediterranea Genome Database (SmedGD) was first released to provide a much needed resource for the small, but growing planarian community. SmedGD 1.0 has been a depository for genome sequence, a draft assembly, and related experimental data (e.g., RNAi phenotypes, in situ hybridization images, and differential gene expression results). We report here a comprehensive update to SmedGD (SmedGD 2.0) that aims to expand its role as an interactive community resource. The new database includes more recent, and up-to-date transcription data, provides tools that enhance interconnectivity between different genome assemblies and transcriptomes, including next-generation assemblies for both the sexual and asexual biotypes of S. mediterranea. SmedGD 2.0 (http://smedgd.stowers.org) not only provides significantly improved gene annotations, but also tools for data sharing, attributes that will help both the planarian and biomedical communities to more efficiently mine the genomics and transcriptomics of S. mediterranea. genesis, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.